Superior Court of the District of Columbia - Wikipedia

Superior Court of the District of Columbia
H. Carl Moultrie Courthouse.JPG
H. Carl Moultrie Courthouse, Judiciary Square
Established1970
LocationH. Carl Moultrie Courthouse, Judiciary Square, Washington, D.C.
Appeals toDistrict of Columbia Court of Appeals
Number of positions62 judges (including chief judge)
Websitewww.dccourts.gov
Chief Judge
CurrentlyAnita Josey-Herring
SinceOctober 1, 2020; 22 months ago (2020-10-01)

The Superior Court of the District of Columbia, commonly referred to as DC Superior Court, is the trial court for the District of Columbia, in the United States. It hears cases involving criminal and civil law, as well as family court, landlord and tenant, probate, tax and driving violations (no permit and DUI). All appeals of Superior Court decisions go to the District of Columbia Court of Appeals (though magistrate judge opinions are first appealed to a Superior Court Associate Judge).

History[edit]

The main court entrance on Indiana Avenue

The first judicial systems in the new District of Columbia were established by the United States Congress in 1801.[1] The Circuit Court of the District of Columbia (not to be confused with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, which it later evolved into) was both a trial court of general jurisdiction and an appellate court, and it heard cases under both local and federal law. Congress also established justices of the peace and an orphans' court, which were combined in 1870 into a new local court called the Police Court. The Police Court had jurisdiction over misdemeanors (concurrently with the federal courts) as well as equity powers.[1][2] In 1909, Congress converted the Police Court into the Municipal Court, which became a court of record with jury trials in 1921.[1] In 1963, Congress again converted the Municipal Court into the Court of General Sessions. Its jurisdiction was broader, although the federal courts retained concurrent jurisdiction in criminal cases. Under the District of Columbia Court Reform and Criminal Procedure Act of 1970, the Court of General Sessions was combined with the Juvenile Court (established in 1906) and the D.C. Tax Court (established as the local Board of Tax Appeals in 1937) to form the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, a trial court of general and mostly exclusive jurisdiction for D.C.[1]

The court consists of a chief judge and 61 associate judges. The court is assisted by the service of 24 magistrate judges and retired judges who have been recommended and approved as senior judges. When a vacancy occurs on the court, the District of Columbia Judicial Nomination Commission invites applications. It sends three candidates' names to the President of the United States, who sends one nomination to the U.S. Senate for advice and consent. If the Senate confirms a judge, they serve for a 15-year term, which is renewable. The Superior Court and the D.C. Court of Appeals, known collectively as the D.C. Courts, comprise the judicial branch of D.C.'s local government.[3]

In criminal cases, the government is represented by the Office of the United States Attorney for the District of Columbia or the Office of the Attorney General for the District of Columbia, depending on the nature and severity of the charges.

Organizational units[edit]

  • Civil Division – Civil actions and actions in equity; handles temporary restraining orders other than those involving domestic violence.
    • Civil Actions Branch – Amount in controversy above $10,000 or cases requesting equitable relief such as declarative judgments, injunctive relief, writs of attachment
    • Landlord and Tenant Branch – processes cases filed for possession of real property or violations of lease agreements. The Landlord-Tenant Resource Center can assist those who do not have an attorney. The Center is located in Room 115 of Court Building B (510 Fourth Street, NW) and is open weekdays, from 9:15 to noon.
    • Small Claims and Conciliation Branch – Amount in controversy $10,000 and below. There is a Small Claims Resource Center to assist those without an attorney. It is located in Court Building B, Room 102, and is open from 9:15 to noon on Thursdays.
    • Housing Conditions Calendar handles cases in which landlords are alleged to have not kept their rental property compliant with the D.C. Housing Code.
  • Criminal Division – This division handles cases including misdemeanor, felony, and serious traffic offenses. The division also has Community Courts, which take a problem-solving approach to misdemeanor crimes, a drug court, and a mental health court.
  • Family Court Operations Division – Family court
    • Family Court Central Intake Center (CIC) – all cases are filed here.
    • Domestic Relations Branch – divorce, legal separation, annulment, child custody, habeas corpus, and adoption
    • Juvenile and Neglect Branch – juvenile delinquency, child abuse and neglect.
    • Paternity and Child Support Branch – establishment of paternity, child support, and wage withholding
    • Marriage Bureau – marriage licenses/records; applications to perform marriage ceremonies in the District of Columbia by authorized ministers and others
    • Mental Health and Habilitation Branch – "hospitalization and continued treatment of persons adjudicated as mentally retarded or in need of mental health services"
    • Counsel for Child Abuse and Neglect Branch is responsible for determining party eligibility for court-appointed counsel in child abuse and neglect proceedings and processes the appointment of attorneys for parties in these cases.
    • Family Court Self Help Center – "provides legal information and assistance to self-represented parties in Family Court Cases."
    • Family Treatment Court –"court-supervised, voluntary, comprehensive residential substance abuse treatment program for mothers/female caretakers whose children are the subject of a child neglect case."
  • Domestic Violence Division – Domestic violence – Handles cases of violence by a family member or romantic partner, a person who shares living quarters, with whom one has a child in common, or between a former and current romantic partner. There are two intake centers: 1) the fourth floor of the Moultrie Courthouse, 2) the Medical Center at 1328 Southern Avenue, Suite 311. At either location, those seeking a protection order can meet with police/prosecutor, advocate, file a petition for a stay-away order and/or custody, seek the assistance of the Crime Victims Compensation Program, and talk with an advocate to develop a safety plan.
  • Probate Division/Office of the Register of Wills – handles matters relating to estates of those who have died, guardianships and conservatorships for incapacitated adults, and other such matters.
    • Probate Resource Center – those without an attorney can consult volunteer attorneys about probate matters at the Probate Resource Center in Room 316 of Court Building A (515 Fifth Street, NW) 8:30 to 3:30 Monday through Friday.
  • Tax Division – Appeals and petitions for review of assessments made by the District of Columbia, as well as all proceedings brought by the District of Columbia for the imposition of criminal penalties according to the provisions of the District of Columbia Code
  • Family Court Social Services Division – This division supervises juveniles who are awaiting trial on juvenile charges or who are on probation after pleading or being found involved in a crime.
  • Multi-Door Dispute Resolution Division – Mediation and alternative dispute resolution services for those with court cases, as well as a Community Information Referral Program for disputes that have not yet resulted in a lawsuit being filed.
  • Special Operations Division
    • Jurors Office
    • Child Care Center
    • Judge-in-Chambers
    • Office of Court Interpreting Services

Active judges[edit]

As of April 22, 2022:

Title Judge Born First term began Current term ends Began senior status First appointed by
Chief Judge Anita Josey-Herring 1960 November 11, 1997 2027 Clinton
Associate Judge John M. Campbell 1953 November 11, 1997 2027 Clinton
Associate Judge Neal E. Kravitz 1957 October 21, 1998 2028 Clinton
Associate Judge Hiram E. Puig-Lugo 1961 June 6, 1999 2029 Clinton
Associate Judge Gerald I. Fisher 1950 January 15, 2001 2031 Clinton
Associate Judge Erik P. Christian 1960 July 20, 2001 2031 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Maurice A. Ross 1961 June 6, 1999 2031 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Lynn Leibovitz 1959 September 21, 2001 2031 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Robert Rigsby 1960 October 11, 2002 2032 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Craig Iscoe 1953 January 5, 2004 2033 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge J. Michael Ryan 1957 January 16, 2004 2034 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Laura Cordero 1965 September 2, 2005 2035 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Juliet J. McKenna 1970 December 16, 2005 2035 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Jennifer M. Anderson 1959 October 27, 2006 2036 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Heidi Pasichow 1955 August 25, 2008 2023 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Anthony C. Epstein 1952 September 8, 2008 2023 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Alfred S. Irving Jr. 1959 December 3, 2008 2023 G.W. Bush
Associate Judge Milton C. Lee Jr. 1960 2010 2025 Obama
Associate Judge Marisa Demeo 1966 May 10, 2010 2025 Obama
Associate Judge Todd E. Edelman 1968 October 4, 2010 2025 Obama
Associate Judge Maribeth Raffinan 1970 October 29, 2010 2025 Obama
Associate Judge Jennifer A. Di Toro 1967 October 14, 2011 2026 Obama
Associate Judge Yvonne M. Williams 1972 December 16, 2011 2026 Obama
Associate Judge John F. McCabe 1958 February 24, 2012 2027 Obama
Associate Judge Peter A. Krauthamer 1957 April 20, 2012 2027 Obama
Associate Judge Danya Dayson 1972 April 27, 2012 2027 Obama
Associate Judge Kimberley S. Knowles 1970 November 9, 2012 2027 Obama
Associate Judge Michael Kenny O'Keefe 1963 June 20, 2013 2028 Obama
Associate Judge Robert Okun 1960 November 8, 2013 2028 Obama
Associate Judge William W. Nooter 1954 December 22, 2015 2030 Obama
Associate Judge Steven M. Wellner 1959 February 19, 2016 2031 Obama
Associate Judge Robert A. Salerno 1961 March 11, 2016 2031 Obama
Associate Judge Darlene M. Soltys 1965 March 18, 2016 2031 Obama
Associate Judge Elizabeth Carroll Wingo 1970 August 26, 2016 2031 Obama
Associate Judge Julie H. Becker 1974 September 3, 2016 2031 Obama
Associate Judge Jonathan Pittman 1963 April 4, 2018 2033 Trump
Associate Judge Kelly Higashi 1962 October 26, 2018 2033 Trump
Associate Judge Carmen Guerricagoitia McLean 1976 May 3, 2019 2034 Trump
Associate Judge James Crowell 1973 August 2019 2034 Trump
Associate Judge Shana Frost Matini 1970 August 2019 2034 Trump
Associate Judge Jason Park 1979 August 2019 2034 Trump
Associate Judge Rainey R. Brandt 1966 September 16, 2019 2034 Trump
Associate Judge Andrea L. Hertzfeld 1979 November 2019 2034 Trump
Associate Judge Deborah J. Israel 1964 November 2019 2034 Trump
Associate Judge Rupa Ranga Puttagunta 1981/1982 February 25, 2022 2037 Biden
Associate Judge Kenia Seoane Lopez February 25, 2022 2037 Biden
Associate Judge Sean C. Staples February 25, 2022 2037 Biden
Associate Judge Ebony M. Scott February 25, 2022 2037 Biden
Associate Judge D.W. Tunnage February 25, 2022 2037 Biden
Associate Judge seat vacant
Associate Judge seat vacant
Associate Judge seat vacant
Associate Judge seat vacant
Associate Judge seat vacant
Associate Judge seat vacant
Associate Judge seat vacant
Associate Judge seat vacant
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Associate Judge seat vacant
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Senior Judge Frederick H. Weisberg 1944[4] 1977 March 22, 2018 Carter
Senior Judge Henry F. Greene 1941[5] May 1981 2004 Reagan
Senior Judge Robert I. Richter 1947[6] 1984 October 2, 2014 Reagan
Senior Judge Robert S. Tignor 1944[6] 1984 1999 Reagan
Senior Judge Herbert B. Dixon Jr. 1946[7] 1985 April 28, 2015 Reagan
Senior Judge Richard A. Levie 1945[8] 1985 2000 Reagan
Senior Judge Curtis Von Kann 1942[9] 1985 1995 Reagan
Senior Judge Harold L. Cushenberry Jr. 1950[10] 1986 December 16, 2015 Reagan
Senior Judge Michael L. Rankin 1946 1986 August 31, 2019 Reagan
Senior Judge Cheryl M. Long 1949[11] 1988 December 4, 2009 Reagan
Senior Judge Kaye K. Christian 1953[12] 1990 December 4, 2010 G.H.W. Bush
Senior Judge Patricia A. Wynn 1945[12] 1990 2002 G.H.W. Bush
Senior Judge Joan Zeldon 1938[12] 1990 December 3, 2011 G.H.W. Bush
Senior Judge Zinora Mitchell-Rankin 1956 January 12, 1990 February 29, 2012 G.H.W. Bush
Senior Judge Gregory E. Mize 1946[12] March 7, 1990 March 12, 2002 G.H.W. Bush
Senior Judge Linda D. Turner 1953[12] September 1990 December 5, 2008 G.H.W. Bush
Senior Judge Ann O'Regan Keary 1950[13] 1992 August 21, 2015 G.H.W. Bush
Senior Judge Lee F. Satterfield 1958 1992 February 1, 2017 G.H.W. Bush
Senior Judge Russell F. Canan 1950[14] August 8, 1993 February 3, 2018 Clinton
Senior Judge Zoe Bush 1954[15] July 18, 1994 October 27, 2017 Clinton
Senior Judge Rhonda Reid Winston 1954[15] July 18, 1994 September 30, 2016 Clinton
Senior Judge Judith Bartnoff 1949 August 1, 1994 September 13, 2019 Clinton
Senior Judge Ronna Lee Beck 1947 May 26, 1995 January 8, 2021 Clinton
Senior Judge Robert E. Morin 1953 July 30, 1996 September 30, 2020 Clinton
Senior Judge Melvin R. Wright 1950[16] April 6, 1998 August 5, 2016 Clinton
Senior Judge Natalia Combs Greene 1954[17] October 21, 1998 September 30, 2013 Clinton
Senior Judge Patricia A. Broderick 1949 November 3, 1998 June 5, 2020 Clinton
Senior Judge Thomas J. Motley 1954[18] July 6, 2000 October 27, 2017 Clinton
Senior Judge Jeanette Clark 1948[19] 2002 March 18, 2017 G.W. Bush
Senior Judge Gregory E. Jackson 1951[20] 2005 July 21, 2017 G.W. Bush

Vacancies and pending nominations[edit]

Seat Seat last held by Vacancy reason Date of vacancy Nominee Date of nomination
Frederick H. Weisberg Term expired March 22, 2018[21] Adrienne Jennings Noti September 30, 2021
John Ramsey Johnson May 17, 2019[22] Veronica M. Sanchez July 14, 2022
Michael Rankin August 31, 2019[23]
Judith Bartnoff September 13, 2019[23] Kendra D. Briggs November 3, 2021
Carol Dalton January 30, 2020[24]
Wendell P. Gardner March 27, 2020[24]
Robert E. Morin September 30, 2020[25]
Florence Y. Pan Elevation September 23, 2021[26] Carl Ezekiel Ross December 15, 2021
Steven N. Berk Retirement November 1, 2021[27] Laura Crane July 14, 2022
José M. López December 31, 2021[28] Errol Rajesh Arthur December 15, 2021
Judith Anne Smith Term expired January 21, 2022[28] Leslie A. Meek
William M. Jackson March 31, 2022[29]
Fern Flanagan Saddler Retirement April 22, 2022[30]
Gerald Fisher August 31, 2022[29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Goodbread, Ronald A. (September 1, 2009). "A Brief Topical History of Local and Federal Trial and Appellate Courts in the District of Columbia". Daily Washington Law Reporter. p. 1847.
  2. ^ Cave v. Rudolph, 53 App.D.C. 12, 16 (C.A.D.C. 1923).
  3. ^ "Judicial Selection in the States: District of Columbia". American Judicature Society. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
  4. ^ Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (1977). Nominations to the District of Columbia Superior Court: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session ... December 6, 1977. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  5. ^ Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (1981). Nomination of Henry F. Greene: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-seventh Congress, First Session, on Nomination of Henry F. Greene, to be an Associate Judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, April 2, 1981. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  6. ^ a b Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (1984). Nominations for Superior Court of the District of Columbia: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-eighth Congress, Second Session, on the Nominations of Emmet G. Sullivan, Colleen C. Kollar-Kotelly, Rufus G. King III, Susan R. Holmes, Noel A. Kramer, Robert I. Richter, and Robert S. Tignor, to be Associate Judges of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, September 11, 1984. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  7. ^ Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (April 4, 1985). Nomination of Herbert Blalock Dixon, Jr: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session on Nomination of Herbert Blalock Dixon, Jr., to be Associate Judge, Superior Court of the District of Columbia, April 4, 1985. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 2.
  8. ^ Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (1985). Nominations of John M. Steadman and Richard A. Levie: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-ninth Congress, First Session, on the Nominations of John M. Steadman to be an Associate Judge of the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, and Richard A. Levie to be an Associate Judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, June 11, 1985. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 20.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  9. ^ Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (1985). Nomination of Curtis E. Von Kann: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-ninth Congress, First Session on Nomination of Curtis E. Von Kann to be an Associate Judge, Superior Court of the District of Columbia, July 23, 1985. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 2.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  10. ^ Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (1986). Nominations of Harold L. Cushenberry, Jr., and Michael L. Rankin: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-ninth Congress, First Session ... to be Associate Judges of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, December 9, 1985. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  11. ^ Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (February 26, 1988). Nominations of Frank Ernest Schwelb and Cheryl Marie Long: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, on Nominations of Frank Ernest Schwelb to be Associate Judge, District of Columbia Court of Appeals, and Cheryl Marie Long to be Associate Judge, District of Columbia Superior Court, February 26, 1988. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 25.
  12. ^ a b c d e Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (July 20, 1990). Nominations for Superior Court of the District of Columbia: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session, on Nominations of Mary Ellen Abrecht, Kaye K. Christian, Frederick D. Dorsey, Ellen Segal Huvelle, Jose M. Lopez, Joan Z. McAvoy, Gregory E. Mize, Patricia Q. Wynn, John Henry Bayly, Jr., Linda Turner Hamilton, and Stephen G. Milliken, to be Associate Judges ... U.S. Government Printing Office.
  13. ^ Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (May 14, 1992). Nominations of William McKinley Jackson, Ann O'Regan Keary, Judith Ellen Retchin, and Stephanie Duncan-Peters: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, on Nominations of William McKinley Jackson, Ann O'Regan Keary, Judith Ellen Retchin, and Stephanie Duncan-Peters to be Associate Judge, Superior Court of the District of Columbia, May 14, 1992. U.S. Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-16-039822-3.
  14. ^ States, United; Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (August 3, 1993). Nomination of Russell Frank Canan: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session on Nomination of Russell Frank Canan, to be Associate Judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, August 3, 1993. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-16-044181-3.
  15. ^ a b States, United; Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (June 29, 1994). Nominations of Judith Bartnoff, Zoe Alice Bush, and Rhonda Reid Winston: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, on Nominations of Judith Bartnoff, Zoe Alice Bush, and Rhonda Reid Winston to be Associate Judges, Superior Court of the District of Columbia, June 29, 1994. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-16-046180-4.
  16. ^ Staff, U. S. Government Printing Office; Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (April 1, 1998). Nomination of Melvin Randolph Wright: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, April 1, 1998, Nomination of Melvin Randolph Wright to be Associate Judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-16-057334-7.
  17. ^ States, United; Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (September 3, 1998). Nominations of Natalia M. Combs Greene, Patricia A. Broderick, and Neal E. Kravitz: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, September 3, 1998, Nominations of ... to be Associate Judges, D.C. Superior Court, Washington, DC. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-16-057684-3.
  18. ^ Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (2000). Nominations of Anna Blackburne-Rigsby, Thomas Motley, and John Mott: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session, on Nominations of Anne Blackburne-Rigsby, Thomas Motley, and John Mott, to be Associate Judges of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, May 10, 2000. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 36.
  19. ^ Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (March 5, 2002). Nomination of Jeanette J. Clark: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session on the Nomination of Jeanette J. Clark to be an Associate Judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, March 5, 2002. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-16-068568-2.
  20. ^ States, United; Affairs, United States Congress Senate Committee on Governmental (October 5, 2004). Nomination of Gregory Eugene Jackson: Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session, on the Nomination of Gregory Eugene Jackson, to be an Associate Judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, October 5, 2004. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-16-074287-3.
  21. ^ "Notice of Judicial Vacancy on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia". jnc.dc.gov. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  22. ^ "Notice of Judicial Vacancy on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia". jnc.dc.gov. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  23. ^ a b "Notice of Judicial Vacancies on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia". jnc.dc.gov. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  24. ^ a b "Notice of Judicial Vacancies on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia". jnc.dc.gov. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  25. ^ "Notice of Judicial Vacancy on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia". jnc.dc.gov. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  26. ^ "Notice of Judicial Vacancy on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia". jnc.dc.gov. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  27. ^ "Notice of Judicial Vacancy on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia". jnc.dc.gov. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  28. ^ a b "Notice of Judicial Vacancies on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia". jnc.dc.gov. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  29. ^ a b "Notice of Judicial Vacancies on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia". jnc.dc.gov. Retrieved July 16, 2022.
  30. ^ "Notice of Judicial Vacancy on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia". jnc.dc.gov. April 14, 2022. Retrieved July 15, 2022.

External links[edit]